In the research study, 8 senior Jungian analysts have been interviewed, providing their own experiences with archetypal transference, about its relevance and effects on the therapeutic relationship. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed.
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In accordance with the procedures of intuitive inquiry synthesized and compared the data with the initial set of assumptions and statements. Through successive cycles of interpretation, the results were discussed and formulated into a theory by supporting the initial concept. Findings suggest that archetypal transference is inevitably present in the analytic relationship even if it is not evident or hard to distinguish from other transferences, and serves the psychological and spiritual growth of both the analyst and patient. Therefore, I would like to thank the contributions of donors, officers, and every individual who established and supported this great international program I could also take part.
Herewith, I wish to acknowledge the many individuals who guided and supported me during my dissertation journey. First of all, I owe a great many thanks to my committee. I am especially indebted to Rosemarie Anderson, the Chair of my committee, for her generous help, down-to-earth sensitivity, consistency, and intellectual honesty in making me transforming my research idea into dissertation.
Besides her professional tasks as Chair, she taught me how to employ her method, the intuitive inquiry not only for my research, but for liberating myself in the research work. My deepest gratitude is extended to my dissertation committee members, Helen Marlo and Greg Bogart, for always being available and supportive, their valuable comments and useful advice along the way.
I am grateful for their untiring encouragement and patience. Many thanks to my research participants for generously sharing their thoughts and experiences with me. I cannot reveal the names of these fine Jungian analyst here due to the research policy, but without their contributions I would not have been able to collect rich and in-depth data to be reflected upon and to gain deeper insight into my research topic.
I also wish to express my gratitude to my editors, Panna Jaroch and Colleen Bosholm, for their tutorial advice, tolerance, and expert competence in correcting the text written by a non-native English speaker. In particular, I am indebted to: my mentors Dr. Patricia A.
Furthermore, I am grateful for the inspiring community, support, and critical-listening skills of my cohort members, and to all the professors and students in the residential as well as the global programs at ITP. I felt lucky to meet and study with these people during my doctoral studies; and, last but not least, thanks to the always helpful ITP librarians, Katrina Rahn and Lucy Erman. I am also deeply indebted to all my Jungian teachers and friends from the San Francisco Jung Institute, among them particularly to Dr.
Jean Kirsch, Dr. Thomas Kirsch, Jan Robinson, Dr. Lou Vuksinick, Dr. Dennis Turner, Dr. Brian Feldman. I owe a lot to my group of analytic candidates for many ways of their support and friendship. Special thanks to my analyst who taught me first how to be a good patient, then how to be a good analyst, just by giving my best self. He provided unlimited sources of inspiration and trust in my dissertation process, which kept the spirit alive in me, even in difficult times. These acknowledgements cannot be complete without mentioning the tremendous support of my family.
Without support of my parents and the financial help of my brother I could not have pursued my studies and completed my dissertation. This may influence the analytic process between therapist and patient, and serves the psychological and spiritual growth of the patient in psychotherapy.
I employed intuitive inquiry, which is an emerging research methodology of transpersonal psychology. Using intuitive inquiry, the aim of my research was, to identify and evaluate specific elements of the analytic relationship and to compare this with major characteristics of the spiritual master-disciple relationship across historical time, in different cultures and religions. Personal Relevance The relevance of this topic was a personal one. In late adolescence, when I started studying Eastern philosophy, I experienced a lot of confusion when my worldview, based on Protestant-Christian religious education and my studies of Western philosophy, collapsed.
I yearned for and was looking for a spiritual teacher, but could not find one. After reading his commentary on The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation Jung, c , immediately I knew that something important had happened to me.
That was 20 years ago. Now it made sense, during my doctoral studies, to explore this topic in depth. Context Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been a continuous interest in Eastern knowledge and practices expressed by Western psychology.
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Carl Jung a, c, d was one of the first Western psychologists to recognize the importance of the Eastern religious and spiritual traditions in understanding and healing the human psyche. Jung respected and thoroughly investigated the major Eastern spiritual practices such as the Chinese Tao, the Hindu Yoga, and the Tibetan Buddhism. Jung found that the goal of these age- old systems is the same, reaching Liberation, which he described psychologically as self- realization Vasavada, Jung also insisted that Westerners not simply adopt Eastern spiritual practices and concepts.
He had serious reservations about the application of Eastern spiritual practices by Western practitioners Odajnyik, However, Jung did believe that psychotherapy could serve as an alternative for personal development and growth, and that it was a more appropriate method for Westerners than imitating the Eastern practices. We can be sure that the essence we extract from our experience will be quite different from what the East offers us today.
The East came to its knowledge of inner things in childlike ignorance of the external world. We on the other hand, shall explore the psyche and its depths supported by an immense knowledge of history and science. We are already building up a psychology, a science that gives us key to the very things that the East discovered—and discovered only through abnormal psychic states. Jung, , p. Increasingly, the East and the West influence each other; they are not as separate as they were in the past.
Jung was not mistaken when he warned Westerners not to take on new or foreign viewpoints before understanding and integrating them into their culture. In the last decades, several books and articles have been written regarding the psychological implications of the master-disciple relationship Bogart, , ; Coukoulis, ; Kakar, ; Vigne, , that have discussed the healing process and the spiritual development in psychotherapy generally.
Though recently several empirical research studies were also published Magnussen, ; Matsu-Pissot, ; Phelon, , they addressed the topic partially and differently. Inspired by my transpersonal studies, reading the contemporary Jungian literature and especially my training analysis, which provided rich experiences, I thought to revisit my old idea of drawing parallel between Jungian psychoanalysis and the master- disciple relationship. I discussed the analytic relationship by using the concepts of archetype, transference, countertransference, and archetypal transference as C.
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Jung and other Jungian scholars described them. Research Questions My primary research question was: How does the archetypal transference appear and influence the therapeutic relationship between therapist and patient? A secondary question was: What similarities and differences can we find between master-disciple and therapist-patient relationships?
Finally, a third and most important question was: What can we learn from this experience from a transpersonal perspective? Research Design and Methodology To explore these questions, I employed a qualitative research method, the intuitive inquiry developed by Rosemarie Anderson , , a, b.
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This methodology includes a sequence of cycles that invites the researcher, the co-researcher or participants , and the reader into a repetitive, in-depth, and reflective process of interpretations. Furthermore, the intuitive inquiry provided an open and flexible structure that invited both freedom of expression and intellectual thoroughness throughout the method, and supported shaping my research in a meaningful way.
In my research, I was going to collect and formulate themes, assumptions, and questions regarding the archetypal transference.
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Then, I conducted semi-formal interviews with nine senior Jungian analysts, male and female, about their experiences in the same topic. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. At the end, my findings were discussed and concluded by explicating the initial concept. Significance of the Study During my research I gathered and distilled empirical data, which may contribute to learning more about the archetypal foundation of the analytic process in psychotherapy.
Bringing awareness of its existence and understanding the process may help therapists and analysts to work more effectively with patients and foster the healing process. This research may also be interesting, because it offers more insights into the nature of initiatory or transformational experience, a frequently investigated topic within transpersonal psychology.
To support this vision transpersonal researches consider one or more of the four foci or emphases as follow: 1. Nonverbal art, image, symbol, movement and storytelling approaches 2. Inclusive and multicultural research approaches and ways of knowing 3. The study and application of local, indigenous, and spiritual wisdoms and experiences that serve positive end goals 4.
My research work met two of the above goals as it included cross-cultural comparison of ways of knowing, and incorporated spiritual wisdoms and experiences that serve positive end goals. I compare and contrast these two relationships and offer a review of their literature.
Detailed descriptions of the master-disciple, guru-chela relationships in each and every spiritual tradition, wherever they have appeared, would go beyond the scope of this review. Therefore, I do not discuss its alternatives in the Christian and Jewish religions, and in the European traditions at large.
I do not discuss their modern appearances, the vast amount of so-called guru papers either. Instead, I primarily focus on literature that has compared the Eastern forms of master-disciple relationship and the therapist-patient relationship from a psychological perspective.